# Subject Outline

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

understanding includes describing patterns involving indices and recurring decimals, identifying commonalities between operations with algebra and arithmetic, connecting rules for linear relations with their graphs, explaining the purpose of statistical measures and explaining measurements of perimeter and area

fluency includes calculating accurately with simple decimals, indices and integers; recognising equivalence of common decimals and fractions including recurring decimals; factorising and simplifying basic algebraic expressions and evaluating perimeters and areas of common shapes and volumes of three-dimensional objects

problem-solving includes formulating and modelling practical situations involving ratios, profit and loss, areas and perimeters of common shapes and using two-way tables and Venn diagrams to calculate probabilities

reasoning includes justifying the result of a calculation or estimation as reasonable, deriving probability from its complement, using congruence to deduce properties of triangles, finding estimates of means and proportions of populations.

Year 8 Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Number and place value

Use index notation with numbers to establish the index laws with positive integral indices and the zero index (ACMNA182 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Carry out the four operations with rational numbers and integers, using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA183 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Real numbers

Investigate terminating and recurring decimals (ACMNA184 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Investigate the concept of irrational numbers, including π (ACMNA186 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Solve problems involving the use of percentages, including percentage increases and decreases, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA187 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Solve a range of problems involving rates and ratios, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA188 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Money and financial mathematics

Solve problems involving profit and loss, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA189 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Patterns and algebra

Extend and apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions (ACMNA190 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors (ACMNA191 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Simplify algebraic expressions involving the four operations (ACMNA192 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Linear and non-linear relationships

Plot linear relationships on the Cartesian plane with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMNA193 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Solve linear equations using algebraic and graphical techniques. Verify solutions by substitution (ACMNA194 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement

Choose appropriate units of measurement for area and volume and convert from one unit to another (ACMMG195 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Find perimeters and areas of parallelograms, trapeziums, rhombuses and kites (ACMMG196 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Investigate the relationship between features of circles such as circumference, area, radius and diameter. Use formulas to solve problems involving circumference and area (ACMMG197 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Develop formulas for volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume (ACMMG198 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Solve problems involving duration, including using 12- and 24-hour time within a single time zone (ACMMG199 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Geometric reasoning

Define congruence of plane shapes using transformations (ACMMG200 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Develop the conditions for congruence of triangles (ACMMG201 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Establish properties of quadrilaterals using congruent triangles and angle properties, and solve related numerical problems using reasoning (ACMMG202 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Statistics and Probability

Chance

Identify complementary events and use the sum of probabilities to solve problems (ACMSP204 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Describe events using language of ‘at least’, exclusive ‘or’ (A or B but not both), inclusive ‘or’ (A or B or both) and ‘and’. (ACMSP205 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Represent events in two-way tables and Venn diagrams and solve related problems (ACMSP292 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Data representation and interpretation

Investigate techniques for collecting data, including census, sampling and observation (ACMSP284 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Explore the practicalities and implications of obtaining data through sampling using a variety of investigative processes (ACMSP206 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Explore the variation of means and proportions of random samples drawn from the same population (ACMSP293 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Investigate the effect of individual data values, including outliers, on the mean and median (ACMSP207 – Scootle )

Elaborations

Year 8 Achievement Standards

Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 8, students solve everyday problems involving rates, ratios and percentages. They describe index laws and apply them to whole numbers. They describe rational and irrational numbers. Students solve problems involving profit and loss. They make connections between expanding and factorising algebraic expressions. Students solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications. They identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. Students model authentic situations with two-way tables and Venn diagrams. They choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They explain issues related to the collection of data and the effect of outliers on means and medians in that data.

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to carry out the four operations with integers. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions. They solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane. Students convert between units of measurement for area and volume. They perform calculations to determine perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. They name the features of circles and calculate the areas and circumferences of circles. Students determine the probabilities of complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.

Year 8 Work Sample Portfolios

Satisfactory

Above Satisfactory

Below Satisfactory

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